aDCF Loss Function for Deep Metric Learning in End-to-End Text-Dependent Speaker Verification Systems.Victoria Mingote, Antonio Miguel, Dayana Ribas, Alfonso Ortega, Eduardo Lleida

ViVoLab, Aragón Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain


Contact: {vmingote, dribas, amiguel, ortega, lleida}@unizar.es


Metric learning approaches have widely expanded to the training of Speaker Verification (SV) systems based on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), by using a loss function more consistent with the evaluation process than the traditional identification losses. However, these methods do not consider the performance measure and can involve high computational cost, for example, the need for a careful pair or triplet data selection.

This paper proposes the approximated Detection Cost Function (aDCF) loss, which is a loss function based on the measure of the decision errors in SV systems, namely the False Rejection Rate (FRR) and the False Acceptance Rate (FAR). With aDCF loss as the training objective function, the end-to-end system learns how to minimize decision errors. Furthermore, we replace the typical linear layer as the last layer of DNN by a cosine distance layer, which reduces the difference between the metric in the training process and the metric during evaluation. aDCF loss function was evaluated in RSR2015-Part I and RSR2015-Part II datasets for text-dependent speaker verification. The system trained with aDCF loss outperforms all the state-of-the-art functions employed in this paper in both parts of the database.



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